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Infant+: Breathing PDF Print E-mail
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Tuesday, 17 January 2012 02:19

All ages (infancy +): Breathing


Look for sternal retraction, paradoxical breathing, abdominal breathing and accessory muscle use, nasal flaring, bell-shaped chest, and/or increased work to breathe.

What does abnormal breathing look like?


None of these signs should be present, and the identification of these signs may indicate an urgent concern. Reasons for troubled breathing include (but are not limited to) neuromuscular disease, heart disease, and lung disease; some causes are transient and some are permanent.


Any finding noted under the description is a red flag.

Therapist Response to Red Flag

 Immediately contact the parents and referring provider and request that the provider evaluate the child’s breathing.

Specialist Response to Red Flag

Evaluate the need for urgent treatment/support and make immediate referral to specialists for further evaluation.

Download a pdf of the Surveillance and Referral Aid for Therapists and Specialists. This Aid includes signs of weakness by age, red flags and warning signs for muscle weakness, and referral recommendations.
Last Updated on Wednesday, 20 March 2013 18:15